Human Capital Management in Education Sector

By Garima Saxena, 3EA
Human Capital Management in Education Sector

The necessity for organizations in educational sector to implement human capital management is increasingly acknowledged, specifically, human capital management holds the potential of increasing student outcomes through the increased involvement, empowerment and motivation of teachers. In educational literature, however, little empirical attention is paid to the ways in which different human capital management practices could be bundled into a comprehensive human capital management system (content) and how human capital management could best be implemented to attain positive teacher and student outcomes (process). Regarding the content, and following the AMO theory of performance, it is argued that human capital management systems should comprise (a) ability, (m) motivation and (o) opportunity-enhancing human capital management practices. When teachers perceive human capital management as distinguishing and reliable, it enhances teachers and schools performance, by combining insights from educational studies on single human capital management practices.

Human capital management in education is very important as education personnel are the major instrument for achieving educational goals and consequently, national development. Human personnel are the key to rapid socio-economic development and efficient service delivery. It goes without saying, that without a skilled and well-motivated workforce operating within a comprehensive human capital management programme, human resource development is impossible. Every educational system at every level depends heavily on the human personnel for execution of its programme. The function of human capital management in education includes employees maintenance, employees relations, employees development, procurement of employees and job performance reward.

Human capital management begins with the design of formal structures in an organization to ensure operational and proficient use of human talent to realize organizational goals. Griffin (1997), defined human capital management as the set of organizational activities directed at attracting, developing and maintaining an effective workforce. Human capital management concerns the recruitment, employee welfare, training, motivation relationship, compensation or rewards, transfer and discipline of employees. It lies at the care of the efficiency of the organization. Human capital management is a basic function of management that determines the performance of employees in any organization.

According to Mathis and Jackson (1997), operational human capital management activities are both tactical and administrative in nature. Human personnel management is therefore, interested in compliance with equal employment opportunities and observation of labour laws, examples: applicants must be oriented to the organizations, supervisors must be trained, safety problems must be resolved: wages and salaries must be administered. A varied range of activities typically associated with the daily management of people as provided by regulations must be performed resourcefully. It is this collection of activities that has often been referred to as the personnel function, and the newer strategic focus of human personnel management has not eliminated. In summary, it is difficult to produce one general interpretation of what human capital management means today.

This implies that when employees in the education systems are adequately recruited, selected and supervised, inducted and effectively rewarded, and provided for, properly developed, appraised and promoted on the job, they will be dedicated to the job, remain enthusiastic and productive in the education systems. This can simply be put that it is the co-ordination of the activities and efforts of the employees in educational organization so that educational goals are achieved. Hence, human capital management in education is the process of inspiring employees to maximize their performance in order to obtain supreme output starting from the day they are recruited. This means utilizing people to perform duties and functions in the school (Oduma, 2012). Human personnel are easily recognized as the most important capital out of the personnel required for the production of goods and services. Human personnel are the key to rapid socio-economic development and efficient service delivery (Onah, 2008). Without an adequate, skilled and well-motivated workforce operating within a sound human capital management programme, development is not possible.

Every educational system at every level depends heavily on the human personnel for execution of its programme. Nwakaand Ofojebe (2010) stated that teachers are the critical personnel for effective implementation and realization of the educational policies and objectives at the practical level of classroom. A manager, whether in private or public sector, who underrates the critical role and underplays the importance of people in goal achievement, can neither be effective nor efficient (Oduma, 2012). The teacher is the one, who ultimately understands and implements policy as represented in the school curriculum, which helps to actualize educational goals (Omojunwa, 2007). Maintaining and refining educational principles is only possible through teachers. Teachers therefore are the most crucial entity in the school and are the greatest aid to learning. The major premise of human personnel management in education is that the end results of the educative process will be determined by the efficiency of the teachers who ease learning for self-actualization and nationwide development.

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Article by: Garima Saxena, 3EA